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As of today, that option is now available to all Insiders in the Fast ring! Additionally, we added a column to the status bar that displays the encoding of the document. This is the experience you see when running setup. The Retail release will include these and the links are included here for reference.

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Starting with 19H1, when your device has an update requiring a reboot including new builds we release , you will see the Power button in the Start menu with orange indicator alerting you to restart your device. Today, an average person wishing to take decent and basic everyday pictures will be satisfied with about an 8 megapixel camera. In fact, many new smartphone cameras use 16 megapixels, like the HTC Titan 2, a popular smartphone released in April, Someone with different intentions of using images, perhaps for making high definition prints, will require a camera with more megapixels.

This would allow for their prints to be large, but with appropriate and exceptional quality. Audio Data is very similar to graphics data in that it is understood in pieces. Instead of using pixels, however, audio data uses samples. Audio data is usually recorded with an input device such as a microphone or a MIDI controller. Samples are then taken from the recording thousands of times every second and when they are played back in the same order, they create the original audio file. Because there are so many samples within each sound file, files are often compressed into formats such as MP3 or MP4 so that they take up less storage space.

This makes them easier to download, send over the internet, or even store on your MP3 player. Video data is also similar to graphic and audio data, but instead of using pixels or samples, video data is recorded with the use of frames. Frames are still images that are taken numerous times per second and that when played simultaneously, create a video most films are recorded using twenty-four frames per second.

Inside the system unit contains the motherboard. The motherboard is the "glue" of the computer. It connects the CPU, memory, hard drive, optical drives, video card, and sound card together. The front of the motherboard are peripheral card slots. The slots contain different types of cards which are connected to the motherboard. The left side of the motherboard contain ports. The ports connect to the monitor, printer, keyboard, mouse, speakers, phone line, and network cables.

Like many of the components of computers, motherboards have not always been as advanced as they are today. Motherboards on early PCs did not have many integrated parts located directly on the board. Instead, most of the devices, such as display adapters and hard disk controllers, were connected through expansion slots. As technology advanced, more and more devices were built in directly to the board itself. At first, this began to create problems as manufacturers began to find that if one of the devices on the motherboard was faulty or in some way damaged, that the entire motherboard must be replaced.

This led manufactures to change the design in a way that allowed them to remove faulty parts easily and replace them, especially parts that are growing and changing so quickly, such as the RAM or CPU. Today, a motherboard comes equipped with many parts working in conjunction with each other. One can find anything, from back up batteries, keyboard and mouse connectors, to cache memory chips, in close proximity to the CPU.

The computer is able to do tasks faster as its components continue to be closer to one another. The advancement of technology has allowed for these parts to become smaller and more powerful, allowing more surface area on the motherboard to fit more devices.

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It is common today to find even audio and video components built into it as well. With technology moving as fast as it is, one may wonder what a motherboard will be capable of containing in the near future. An expansion card, also known as an expansion board, adapter card, or accessory board, is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot on the motherboard to add functionality to a computer system. Each type of expansion card has a self-explanatory name and all serve the same purpose of adding functionality to the computer. The audio card is responsible for producing sound that is then transferred to speakers or headphones.

Commonly audio cards are built onto the motherboard, however, they can be purchased separately. The graphics card turns the data produced by a CPU to an image that is able to be seen on a computer's display. Along with the audio card, graphics cards are commonly built onto the motherboard, yet graphics card that produce higher resolution images can be bought separately. Lastly, the network card is an expansion card that connects the computer to a computer network.

This allows for a computer to exchange data with the computer network through a commonly used number of protocols called IEEE After ten months of Faggin and his colleagues working on the chip, it was released by Intel Corporation in January Even though this first generation, 4-bit microprocessor could only add and subtract, it was a major breakthrough in technology.

The amazing quality was that all of the processing was done on one chip, as opposed to prior computers which had a collection of chips wired together. This invention lead to the first portable electronic calculator.

However, the more simple computers embedded in cars, printers, and microwaves can still use the older forms of microprocessors. For example, one famous CPU was the MOS , made in , and it was still being used in many appliances up until Control processing units are the key component in any computer, and thus sometimes the simpler styles work best.

Memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips and is used to store data and programs on a temporary or permanent basis. Inside the system unit, ROM is attached to the motherboard.

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RAM is measured in bytes and includes the cache memory and registers. In order to retrieve an important file at a later date, one needs to store it on a separate, non-volatile, storage medium such as a flash drive or hard-drive so that, even though the information is erased from RAM, it is stored elsewhere. RAM has different slots where it stores data and keeps track of addresses. Read-only memory cannot be written to and is non-volatile which means it keeps its contents regardless of whether the power is turned off or not.

Flash memory solid-state is starting to replace ROM. It is also a non-volatile memory chip that is used for storage on devices, like mobile phones, tablets, digital cameras, etc. This type of memory can often be found in the form of flash drives, SD cards, and Solid-State hard drives. The reason for this is so that the data can be quickly updated over time while taking up a smaller amount of physical space in comparison to its precursors.

Flash memory is also more resistant to outside forces, such as electro-magnetic fields or shock, than other memory alternatives such as traditional hard-drives. Cache memory is kind of volatile memory that allows a computer to perform certain tasks much more quickly. A good analogy from HowStuffWorks compares the computer to a librarian, data to books, and cache to a backpack.

The librarian goes back into the room full of books, grabs that book, and gives it to the reader.

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Later that day, the reader returns, having finished the book, and gives it back to the librarian, who returns it to the same storage room. Then, a second reader walks in asking for the same book, Moby Dick. The librarian has to get up and go all the way back to the room in order to get the book he was just handling, which is a waste of time.

Instead, suppose the librarian had a backpack that could store up to 10 books. When the first person returns Moby Dick , the librarian puts it into his backpack instead after making sure the backpack doesn't have 10 books in it already. Then, when the second person comes in requesting that same book, the librarian can just check his bag, get the book out, and hand it to the second person without having to walk all the way back into the other room. Cache memory functions like that backpack, it stores previously accessed data in a specific area with a limited amount of memory so that the processor can get this data much more quickly.

Ports are on the outside of the system unit and they are used to connect hardware devices. There are physical ports and virtual ports. A physical port is a physical connection to a computer where data is transferred. It is when something is physically plugged into the computer or some other device.

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Virtual ports allow software applications to share hardware resources without having to physically connect to each other or to interfere with one another. Each port has a certain connector to plug it into the computer. Each port also has a different purpose and connector. They also have parallel ports that are used to connect printers. These are also considered USB ports because they are physical ports and which standardize communications between computers and peripheral.

There are also network ports used to connect a computer to a network. Ethernet was developed in the s and it is a system for connecting a number of computer systems to form a local area network LAN.

A serial port is used to connect modems to personal computers. The last main kind of port is the FireWire, which are used to connect FireWire devices to the computer via a FireWire connector. These are used with mostly digital video cameras and other multimedia devices. A Thunderbolt port connects peripheral devices through that cable. These ports allow you to connect more devices to your computer and are very fast. This port supports full bandwidth for both directions of the port, thus allowing the user to be faster and more efficient with the connected devices.

This type of technology allows people to plug in as many devices as they can use on their computer while not slowing any of those devices down.


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The thunderbolt port is also small, so it is easy to travel with as well.

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